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刘宁: 贾平凹与秦岭
发布时间: 2019-05-28      作者: 刘宁       访问量: 1382次  分享到:

北京赛车“一条龙脉,横亘在那里,提携了黄河长江,统领着北方南方。这就是秦岭,中国最伟大的山。《山本》的故事,正是我的一本秦岭志。”这是贾平凹长篇小说《山本》的题记。从这里我们可以看出作家与秦岭深沉而久远的关系。

“A dragon vein, stands there, carrying the Yellow River and the Yangze River, leading the north and south. It is Qinling, the greatest mountains in China. The story of Shan Ben is my records of Qinling.” This is the inscription of Jia Pingwa’s novel Shan Ben, from which we can see the deep and long-termed relationship between the writer and the Qinling Mountains.

01

 秦岭是贾平凹创作根据地
Qinling is Jia Pingwa’s creation base

在贾平凹创作中,始终围绕商州与西安这两个地域,商州在秦岭山麓之南,西安在秦岭山麓之北。秦岭西起甘肃北部白石山,跨甘肃、四川、陕西、湖北和河南,最东至河南境内伏牛山,全长1600多公里,南北宽数十至二、三百千米,其主体在陕西境内500多公里,西起宝鸡嘉陵江源到商州丹江河谷。陕西处于秦岭区域的地市有6个,35个县全部或部分在秦岭地区。贾平凹的家乡商州,具体讲商洛丹凤就在秦岭山中,而在西安四十年,仍在秦岭脚下,因此,贾平凹文学是以秦岭为写作空间,是秦岭故事、中国故事。

北京赛车Jia Pingwa’s works mainly focus on Shangzhou and Xi’an. Shangzhou stands at the south of the Qinling Mountains and Xi’an locates at the north. Qinling Mountains, starts westly from Baishi Mountain in the north of Gansu Province, stretching through Gansu, Sichuan, Shanxi, Hubei and Henan Provinces, east to Funiu Mountain. Its overall length is over 1600 km and north-south width is from tens to two or three hundred meters. The main body, stretches more than 500 km in Shaanxi Province, with west in the origin of Jialing River in Baoji to Danjiang River Valley in Shangzhou. Shaanxi has 6 cities and 35 counties wholely or partially in Qin ling. Shangzhou, Jia Pingwa’s hometown, Danfeng county in Shang Luo, is sitting at the foot of the Qinling Mountains. Therefore, Qinling is the creation space of Jia Pingwa’s literature.1980年代的商州三录、改革三部曲《腊月·正月》,《鸡屋洼人家》 (电影《野山》 )《小月前本》、《远山野情》,1990年代的《太白山记》,2000年的《怀念狼》,2018年的《山本》是贾平凹作品中反映秦岭最真切的作品。商州是贾平凹文学创作根据地,自然、地理赋予作家创作的旺盛生命力,秦岭山中的人事、民俗、历史文化古迹、气候地理成作家写作的对象,从而以秦岭讲述中国故事。

Many of Jia Pingwa’s works typically reflect the Qinling Mountains, for instance, December and January, Families in Ji Wuwa (adapted into the movie In The Wild Mountains), The Stories of Xiaoyue, Distant Mountains and Wild Passion in 1980s, The Records of Tai Bai Mountain in 1990s, Wolves of Yesterday in 2000 and Shan Ben in 2018. Shangzhou, Jia Pingwa’s literature creation base, provides him with numerous vitality. The author takes people, events, folk customs, historical and cultural heritages, climate and geography in Qinling as his writing objects to tell the stories of China.

02

现代文明批判与生态意识
Modern civilization criticism and ecological consciousness

北京赛车狼、隐士、土匪是贾平凹中国秦岭故事里精彩而独特的内容。他艳羡狼的雄健,商山四皓的飘然,土匪生命的率性。《五魁》《白朗》《晚雨》《美穴地》里面充盈着无拘无束的,焕发着蓬勃、强盛的生命力。《废都》中对南山的向往仍是对旺盛生命力的渴望,《高老庄》对人种退化的忧患意识,都有强烈的对现代文明批判精神与对人性异化的反思,有重构中国当代文化意识,《怀念狼》以发现自己日渐丧失生命力,秦岭山中大熊猫难产而死,到“我”寻找商州山中十三匹狼,最后呼唤“可我需要狼。”是作家对建构当代生态文明的呼唤。贾平凹的现代文明批判意识是一种现代意识、人类意识,是要求我们的眼睛瞩目人类最先进的方面,清醒地意识、并正视和解决哪些问题是我们通往人类最先进方面的障碍,比如在文化、民族性情、自然生态环境上,行为习惯上,怎样不再卑怯和暴戾,怎样不再虚妄和阴暗,怎样才真正的公平和富裕,怎样能活得尊严和自在?

Wolves, recluses and bandits are the featured and unique elements in Jia Pingwa’s Qinling series for the adoration of the strong and energetic wolves, the detachment of four recluses in Shangshan mountains, and the levity of bandits (note: Shang Shan Si Hao: four learned recluses who lived in Shangshan Mountains during the early period of Han dynasty, respectively Tang Bing,Cui Guang,Wu Shi and Zhou Shu. They believed in the Yellow Emperor and Lao Tzu doctrine and didn’t want to be officials). For instance, the freedom and willfulness displayed in Wu Kui, Bai Lang, Evening Rain , and Beautiful Cave, the yearning to Zhongnan Mountain and to vitality in Ruined City, the awareness of racial degeneration in Old Gao Village, the strong reflection to modern civilization criticism and alienation of human nature and the transformation progress displayed in Wolves of Yesterday all construct the call for the contemporary ecological civilization. This criticism consciousness is a modern and human consciousness which requires us to distinguish the most advanced aspects as well as the problems and solutions in stepping up to the higher grade, how can we conquer the brutality and gloom to achieve the final justness, affluence, respect and comfort?

03

芸芸众生与生活叙事
Human beings and the narrative of life

贾平凹的秦岭志是中国老百姓的生活志,是秦岭山中与秦岭北麓西安城内芸芸众生的爱恨情仇、生老病死。《山本》是近现代中国历史折射,《老生》是近代以来百年中国历史沧桑叙事,《带灯》是秦岭乡镇维稳故事,《秦腔》在揭示乡村社会的失序时,渴望乡村文明的重建。《高兴》是一群由秦岭山中走来的刘高兴们进入城市生活的真实写照。贾平凹的作品以民间作为自己写作重要视角,从下层民众社会折射社会发展历程。在贾平凹看来,民间是区别于上层社会的传统文化,维系和支撑着千百年来老百姓的日常生活。他所写的长篇小说即是写生活,写生活经验,在老百姓的柴米油盐和悲欢离合的日子里看中国社会的巨变。因此,贾平凹文学是站在秦岭之巅看中国,让世界听到中国秦岭回响。

Jia Pingwa's chronicle of the Qinling Mountains is the life history of the Chinese people. It is the love and hatred of all living beings in Qinling Mountains and the city of Xi’an. His book Shan Ben is the reflection of modern Chinese history. Master of Songs is the vicissitudes of Chinese people in one hundred years. The Lantern Bearer is Qinling township stability maintenance story. Qin Opera reflects the desire for the reconstruction when rural society is in disorder. Happy Dreams is a typical narrative of average people in Qinling Mountains to chase their dreams in urban area. Jia Pingwa's works take the folk as the important angle and reflect the social development course. In his view, the grassroot is a traditional culture different from the upper class, which has maintained and supported the daily life of the common people for thousands of years. He wrote novels about life to see the great changes in Chinese society through daily joys and sorrows. Therefore, Jia Pingwa’s literature is standing on the top of the Qinling Mountains to review China, and let the world hear the echoes of China's Qinling Mountains. 


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